Statistics for social and management science


Statistic is defined as the numerical collection or gathering of fact and observation this fact and observation is systematically collected processed, analysis and summarized.
 Statistics will also denote the quantity measure that are determined from sample
Statistics can also be defined as a branch of science concerned with collection analysis and interpretation of numerical fact of data, about a given population or event.



1. Descriptive statistics: this is a method of organizing and summarizing important features of a data to make meaning it can also be define as a branch of statistics, analyzing of using tables, graph, curved, pictograph etc the hence of descriptive is to enable us to divide for instance, human being is a variables, but the category is made of male and females. Descriptive statistics deals with competition of data as actually recorded.
2. Correlation statistics: this branch of statistics examine the nature of relationships existing between two or more variables for example we can determine a relationship between intelligent quotient and examination grade.
3. Inferential  statistics: this techniques are concerned with estimating population value of a sample in other words you may use inferential statistics or techniques to draw conclusion about a General from Obtain samples.

        Important of statistics

1. It helps us to measure, quantified and to compare.
2. If helps to determining electoral event.
3. It is important to the hand of government through a process called census.



1. Measurement: is the assignment of numerical value to a phenomenon
2. Population: is define as a collection or group of members in a community or an area which could be people or animal that have common or same features
3. Parameters: this are indices, features, characteristics which identify or disguises variables or entities
4. Sample: this is subset of a Parent which is population.
5. Variable: these are phenomenons, observation, entities that are subject and liable to change.

6. Data: these are raw fact, factual information they become information when they are processed.

                    CONCEPT OF VARIABLES

Variables as a name implies is a concept that observe and that are liable to change
It varies by internal and external factors, it also varies over time and it not static WEIGHT is an example of variable


1. Quantitative variable: these are variables that are finite countable and that can be expressed in numerical terms. This variables gives sizes of the same characteristics which enables us to compare an entity from others E.G countries, houses, cars, people etc.
2. Quanlitative variable: this basically categories attributes that nearly indicate sameness or differentness from one group to another examples gender, department, religion, political parties etc
3. Discrete variable: this variables consist distinct value in a whole number or integers I.E it takes number as value and count the broken into fraction. THEY ARE COUNTED AND NOT MEASURE e.g cars, houses, countries, people and no matter there  sizes they assume as a whole number
4. Continuous variable: this variable takes any kind of real numbers which can be measured but not counted examples hight, weight, length, volume, time etc


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